MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology

An Introduction to the Physics of Sailing

Emma Ferris
Masters of Mechanical Engineering at MIT
Officer, The United States Navy

The goal of this lesson is to explain how sailboats work by exploring basic physics principles. At the end of this lesson, students will be able to identify the forces acting on a sailboat and explain how the combination of these forces results in the forward motion of a sailboat. Students should be familiar with vectors and be able to use them to represent forces and moments, and also should be familiar with using free body diagrams to represent forces and moments. A basic understanding of fluid flow and/or resistance might be helpful, but not necessary. This lesson and the follow-on assessment will each take about one hour to complete. Students only need pen/pencil and paper to complete the activities in the lesson, although an optional activity where students make their own sailboats would require additional materials. The classroom activity challenges are centered around small-group discussions based on the questions posed before each break. Free body diagrams, or another conceptual representation of his or her answer, should support each student’s solution to the questions posed in the video. Instructions for the option of having students design their own sailboats as part of this lesson can be found with the Teacher Resources.

Emma started sailing at a young age and eventually taught sailing and sailed competitively in college at the United States Naval Academy.. Her passion for sailing and the ocean led her to study Naval Architecture (ship design) as an undergraduate, and she went on to pursue a Masters in Mechanical Engineering at MIT, with a focus on Ocean Engineering. She currently serves as an officer in the United States Navy.

This site, sponsored by the Physics Classroom, provides instructions on drawing free body diagrams, as well as practice situations for applying those instructions.
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/newtlaws/Lesson-2/Drawing-Free-Body-Diagrams 

Also sponsored by the Physics Classroom, this site provides an introduction to the fundamentals of vectors and directions.
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/vectors/Lesson-1/Vectors-and-Direction 

Again from the Physics Classroom, this is a discussion of vectors and relative velocity.
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/vectors/Lesson-1/Relative-Velocity-and-Riverboat-Problems 

Again from the same hosting site, here you will find an introduction to forces and vectors in two dimensions and the addition of those forces.
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/vectors/Lesson-3/Addition-of-Forces 

Developed by the University of Cambridge in England, this short video demonstrates how lift is created by air flowing over a wing.
http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/how-wings-really-work 

This article by Live Science is an introduction to Fluid Dynamics.
https://www.livescience.com/47446-fluid-dynamics.html 

This site provides a Sailing Simulator sponsored by National Geographic.com
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/volvooceanrace/interactives/sailing/index.html

Sponsored by Real World Physics Problems, this site provides a comprehensive overview of the physics of sailing.
http://www.real-world-physics-problems.com/physics-of-sailing.html

This is an excellent video on sailing produced by KQED in San Francisco.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yqwb4HIrORM

This site, sponsored by the National Sailing Hall of Fame, introduces two hands-on activities students can do to study the science of sailing.
http://www.nshof.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=197&Itemid=268

From the Try-Engineering website, here you will find a lesson on the science of sailing that can be adapted and used with students from 8–18!
http://tryengineering.org/lessons/sailaway.pdf

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An Introduction to the Physics of Sailing (English, mp4) English MPEG 4 Download
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